Both parties spread false and exaggerated rumors about the opposition. And they painted the incumbent president as a decadent aristocrat who had procured prostitutes for the czar while serving as U. The National-Republicans portrayed Jackson as a violent frontier ruffian, the son, some said, of a prostitute married to a mulatto. When Jackson and his wife, Rachel, married, the couple believed that her first husband had obtained a divorce.
After learning the divorce had not yet been made final, the couple held a second, valid wedding. Now the Adams men claimed Jackson was a bigamist and an adulterer. Democratic-Republican Andrew Jackson was reelected in with , popular votes Jackson easily carried the Electoral College with votes. Clay received only 49, and Wirt won the seven votes of Vermont.
Martin Van Buren won the vice presidency with votes against 97 for various other candidates.
National-Republicans attacked the veto, arguing that the Bank was needed to maintain a stable currency and economy. For the first time in American politics, a third party, the Anti-Masons, challenged the two major parties. Many politicians of note participated, including Thaddeus Stevens, William H. Seward and Thurlow Weed. The Anti-Masons protested Masonic secrecy. They feared a conspiracy to control American political institutions, a fear fed by the fact that both the major party candidates, Jackson and Clay, were prominent Masons.
The Anti-Masons convened the first national presidential nominating convention in Baltimore on September 26, The other parties soon followed suit, and the convention replaced the discredited caucus system of nomination. The election of was largely a referendum on Andrew Jackson, but it also helped shape what is known as the second party system. His running mate, Col. Richard M.
Johnson, claimed to have killed Indian chief Tecumseh. Johnson was controversial because he lived openly with a black woman. Disdaining the organized politics of the Democrats, the new Whig Party ran three candidates, each strong in a different region: Hugh White of Tennessee, Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Gen.
William Henry Harrison of Indiana. Van Buren won the election with , popular votes, only Harrison led the Whigs with 73 electoral votes, White receiving 26 and Webster Willie P. Johnson, who failed to win an electoral majority, was elected vice president by the Democratic Senate. The Whig vice-presidential nominee was John Tyler , a onetime Democrat who had broken with Jackson over his veto of the bill rechartering the Second Bank.
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Harrison won by a popular vote of 1,, to 1,,, and an electoral margin of to But the victory proved to be a hollow one because Harrison died one month after his inauguration. Tyler, his successor, would not accept Whig economic doctrine, and the change in presidential politics had little effect on presidential policy.
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The election of introduced expansion and slavery as important political issues and contributed to westward and southern growth and sectionalism. Southerners of both parties sought to annex Texas and expand slavery. Dallas was nominated for vice president to appease Van Burenites, and the party backed annexation and settling the Oregon boundary dispute with England. But, pressured by southerners, Clay endorsed annexation even though he was concerned it might cause war with Mexico and disunion, thereby losing support among antislavery Whigs.
Enough New Yorkers voted for Birney to throw 36 electoral votes and the election to Polk, who won the Electoral College and a slim popular victory. John Tyler signed a joint congressional resolution admitting Texas, but Polk pursued Oregon and then northern Mexico in the Mexican-American War , aggravating tension over slavery and sectional balance and leading to the Compromise of The election of underscored the increasingly important role of slavery in national politics.
Democratic president James K. Polk did not seek reelection. His party nominated Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan , who created the concept of squatter, or popular, sovereignty letting the settlers of a territory decide whether to permit slavery , with Gen.
William O. Butler of Kentucky for vice president. The Whig nominee was the Mexican War hero Gen. Zachary Taylor , a slave owner.
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For his part, Taylor professed moderation on slavery, and he and the Whigs were successful. Taylor defeated Cass, 1,, to 1,, in popular votes and to in electoral votes. With the Taylor-Fillmore ticket elected, the forces had been set in motion for the events surrounding the Compromise of The election rang a death knell for the Whig Party. Both parties split over their nominee and the issue of slavery. King of Alabama as his running mate.
Graham of New Jersey for vice president. They nominated Senator John P. Southern Whigs were suspicious of Scott, whom they saw as a tool of antislavery senator William H. Seward of New York. The election was waged by new political coalitions and was the first to directly confront the issue of slavery.
The violence that followed the Kansas-Nebraska Act destroyed the old political system and past formulas of compromises. The Whig Party was dead. Donelson for vice president. Breckinridge for vice president. Its platform supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act and noninterference with slavery. This election saw the emergence of a new, sectional party composed of ex-Whigs, Free-Soil Democrats and antislavery groups. The Republican Party opposed the extension of slavery and promised a free-labor society with expanded opportunities for white workers. It nominated military hero John C.
Dayton for vice president. The physical assault by Congressman Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina on Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts on the floor of the Senate heightened northern resentment of southern aggressiveness. Although the Democratic candidate, Buchanan, won with electoral votes and 1,, votes, the divided opposition gained more popular votes. The Republican Party captured 1,, votes and in the Electoral College, and the American Party received , popular and 8 electoral votes.
At the Republican convention, front-runner William H. Hoping to carry moderate states like Illinois and Pennsylvania, the party nominated Abraham Lincoln of Illinois for president and Senator Hannibal Hamlin of Maine for vice president. The Republican platform called for a ban on slavery in the territories, internal improvements, a homestead act, a Pacific railroad and a tariff.
The Democratic convention, which met at Charleston, could not agree on a candidate, and most of the southern delegates bolted. Reconvening in Baltimore, the convention nominated Senator Stephen A. By carrying almost the entire North, Lincoln won in the Electoral College with votes to 72 for Breckinridge, 39 for Bell and 12 for Douglas.
Lincoln won a popular plurality of about 40 percent, leading the popular vote with 1,, to 1,, for Douglas, , for Breckinridge and , for Bell.
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With the election of a sectional northern candidate, the Deep South seceded from the Union, followed within a few months by several states of the Upper South. McClellan, the general who had commanded the Army of the Potomac until his indecision and delays caused Lincoln to remove him. At first, Radical Republicans, fearing defeat, talked of ousting Lincoln in favor of the more ardently antislavery secretary of the treasury Salmon P.
Chase , or Generals John C. But in the end they fell in behind the president. The Republicans attracted Democratic support by running as the Union party and putting Johnson, a pro-war Democrat, on the ticket. Lincoln won in a landslide, owing partly to a policy of letting soldiers go home to vote. But the military successes of Generals Ulysses S. Grant in Virginia and William T. Sherman in the Deep South were probably more important. The electoral vote was to Democrats did better in state elections. Lincoln would not live to complete his second term, however.
The President died of his wounds the next day. In this contest, Republican Ulysses S. Blair of Missouri. The Democrats attacked the Republican management of Reconstruction and black suffrage.
Grant, a moderate on Reconstruction, was accused of military despotism and anti-Semitism, and Colfax of nativism and possible corruption. Grant won the popular vote, 3,, to 2,, and carried the Electoral College by to Seymour carried only eight states, but ran fairly well in many others, especially in the South.
The election showed that despite his popularity as a military hero, Grant was not invincible. His margin of victory came from newly enfranchised southern freedmen, who supplied him with about , votes. The Democrats had named a weak ticket and attacked Reconstruction rather than pursuing economic issues, but revealed surprising strength. President Ulysses S. Greeley headed an uneasy coalition of Democrats and liberal Republicans. Gratz Brown of Missouri. Disaffected by Grant administration corruption and the controversy over Reconstruction, Greeley ran on a platform of civil service reform, laissez-faire liberalism and an end to Reconstruction.
The Republicans came out for civil service reform and the protection of black rights. The Electoral College vote was to Actually, the result was more anti-Greeley than pro-Grant. In the Republican Party nominated Rutherford B.
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